E2105. Vascular Anomalies Below the Neck: A Review of Clinical and Imaging Findings
  1. K. Hamzah Ahmed; University of California - Irvine
  2. Hayley Young; University of California - Irvine
  3. Thanh-Lan Bui; University of California - Irvine
  4. Justin Glavis-Bloom; University of California - Irvine
  5. Taylor Wolfe; University of California - Irvine
  6. Roozbeh Houshyar; University of California - Irvine
  7. Karen Tran-Harding; University of California - Irvine
Vascular anomalies span a diverse array of conditions that can be divided by etiology and location in the body. Symptoms vary widely, with type and severity dependent on the character of the anomaly. Diagnosis is achieved through various imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT) scan, angiogram, ultrasound, and sometimes magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized as aberrant congenital connections between arteries and veins that bypass a capillary bed. Arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are similar connections between arteries and veins that are often surgically created for hemodialysis treatment or due to trauma. A pseudoaneurysm is a vascular anomaly that, unlike AVMs and AVFs, is not a case of abnormal arterial venous connection but is due to a breach in the vessel wall which results in blood collecting between the vessel and adventitia lumens or leaking into the surrounding tissue.

Educational Goals / Teaching Points
This exhibit will provide a pictorial review of vascular anomalies in the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic regions. Using a case-based approach, Radiology residents and fellows will be educated on key imaging features and the clinical presentation of AVMs, AVFs, and pseudoaneurysms. The various treatments for these vascular anomalies will also be discussed.

Key Anatomic/Physiologic Issues and Imaging Findings/Techniques
Vascular anomalies are often non-superficial and require cross-sectional diagnostic imaging to localize and characterize the vessel. Some AVMs and AVFs can present with pain and/or swelling and may even be initially misdiagnosed as a mass prior to imaging. Ultrasound doppler and angiogram are used to assess blood flow and plan for treatment including catheter embolization.

Because of varied etiology and clinical presentations, it is important that radiologists correctly diagnose and classify vascular anomalies. Computed tomography and associated imaging techniques are powerful tools to define vascular anomalies and plan for their management. Having an accurate understanding of the imaging related to these conditions ensures that patients will receive potentially life-saving treatments in a timely manner.