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E1369. Help! My Child is Having a Seizure: Causes of Seizures in Childhood
Authors
  1. Robert McEvoy; Mather Hospital
  2. Meghan Moriarty; Mather Hospital
  3. Jessa Tunacao; Mather Hospital
  4. Jared Dunkin; Stony Brook University Medical Center
Background
This educational exhibit will briefly go through common causes of seizures, predominantly those within the childhood population. Seizure disorders affect around 1 to 2% of the population in the United States. Nearly 25 % of these cases of seizures occur before the age of 5. Although, childhood seizures are very common, most can be the result of infection. Sometimes when a child presents with multiple seizures these repeated bouts of seizures can cause brain damage over time and possible prevention can result in decrease healthcare costs and better quality of life for the individual. While there are many causes of seizure within the pediatric population we will discuss multiple congenital and acquired causes. The presentation will discuss detection, identification, and further characterization with cross sectional imaging to be able to provide vital information to the referring clinicians. With the help of cross sectional imaging, clinicians are able to provide earlier detection and possible treatment. We will dive deeper and focus on appropriate imaging protocols to accurately detect and diagnose these conditions.

Educational Goals / Teaching Points
Discuss cross sectional imaging used for detection of causes of seizures. Briefly go over a few causes of congenital seizures, which include but not limited too: Polymicrogyria, Lissencephaly, Grey matter Heterotopia, Agenesis of the corpus callosum, Schzencephaly, Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), tuberous sclerosis, hemimegalencephaly, mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), neoplasms, Rasmussen encephalitis, Holoproencephaly as well as Phakomatoses. With the included cases, discuss some common findings and their imaging characteristics. Briefly discuss possible treatment options for the conditions. Discuss appropriate imaging sequences and protocols for accurate detection and diagnosis. Discuss the importance of detecting and interpreting these findings to the referring clinician for possible treatment.

Key Anatomic/Physiologic Issues and Imaging Findings/Techniques
This presentation will discuss CT, MRI, PET CT and Ultrasound findings of congenital malformations which cause seizure that are commonly seen in the pediatric population.

Conclusion
Childhood seizures are quite common. Although on imaging most cases will not have a specific etiology, it is important for the radiologist to rule out an underlying cause. With the help of CT, MRI, PET and Ultrasound radiologist can adequately detect, diagnose and provide critical information to the referring physicians with regard to the etiology of the seizure. By becoming more comfortable with the various congenital and acquired causes of seizure as well as appropriate imaging protocols, the radiologist will continue to be a vital aspect in the diagnosis, treatment and management.