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E1318. Impact of Chronic Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing on Carotid Hemodynamics: A Doppler Ultrasound Study
Authors
  1. Moawia Gameraddin; Taibah University
  2. Bushra Abdelmalik; Taibah University
  3. Mohammed Ibrahim; Taibah University
Objective:
To assess the impact of chronic chewing khat on the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries (CCAs) using Doppler ultrasound imaging. Specific obectives: 1. to assess the blood resistivity of the common carotid arteries 2. to assess the pulsatility of the commom carotid arteries 3. to evaluate the blood volocity of the common carotid arteries

Materials and Methods:
This is a cross-sectional descriptive case-control study. Fifty participants who were chronic regular khat chewers were selected and compared to 50 asymptomatic healthy non-khat chewers. The participants were selected using convenient sampling method.They were examined using color and spectral Doppler imaging with a 7–10 MHz linear transducer. Grey sacale was used sonograohy was used firstly to identify the CCAs using the anatomical landmarks. The Doppler parameters such as Doppler angle, sample volume, PRF, and Doppler gate were adjusted to produce high quality images. The pulsatility index (PI), resistivity index (RI), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end-diastolic velocity (EDV) of the CCAs were measured according to the standard protocol of the carotid color and spectral Doppler ultrasound imaging. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (IBM, Cary, North Carolina, USA).The independent t-test was applied to compare the Doppler parameters of the CCAs between the chronic khat chewers and controls. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such and presented as means and frequencies. "P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant"

Results:
The mean ages of the khat-chewers and controls were 34.58±8.4 and 32.8±10.6 years respectively. The mean duration of chewing khat was 15.68 ± 8 years. The PI and RI of the right and left CCAs were significantly higher in chronic khat chewers than the controls (p-value < 0.001). The PSV of the right and left CCAs was considerably higher in khat chewers than the controls (p-values < 0.001 and 0.04, respectively).

Conclusion:
The study found that Doppler parameters of blood flow velocity, pulsatility, and resistivity were significantly higher in chronic regular khat chewers than the controls. Khat is a considerable contributory factor for increasing the parameters of hemodynamics of the CCAs.Khat plants contains chemicals which were established in literature to cause cardiac problems. Therefore, identifying the hemodynamics of the carotid arteries is important to predict cerebrovascular diseases which might be caused by the chronic usage of khat. The findings of this study are beneficial for community, clinical Radiologists, Neurologists, and medical professionals.