There are over 120 million contraceptive users worldwide . Over 12% of men under the age of 39 have undergone vasectomy , and 14.3% of reproductive age women use an intrauterine device . However, as with any type of medical intervention, there are risks and potential side effects, and imaging plays a crucial role in recognizing the complications [2, 4].
Educational Goals / Teaching Points
The purpose of this exhibit is to review the wide variety of contraceptive options for males and females and recognize the normal imaging appearance as well as the potential complications of these contraceptive devices and surgical procedures.
Key Anatomic/Physiologic Issues and Imaging Findings/Techniques
This exhibit will feature ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of contraceptive complications, with a focus on ultrasound. In females, this includes migration and abnormal location of intrauterine devices, tubal occlusion devices, and contraceptive implants, as well as post ablation tubal ligation syndrome. It will also address complications of vasectomy including epididymitis, suture granuloma, tubular ectasia, sperm granuloma, testicular ischemia, and scrotal hematoma.
There is an array of contraceptive options for men and women, each with their own inherent risks. It is important for radiologists to be familiar with the normal appearance of these devices and recognize any potential complications.