E3378. Radiology-Based Patient Specific 3D Printing
  1. Katherine Mulquin; University of Cincinnati
  2. Michael Burch; University of Cincinnati
  3. Prashanth Ravi; University of Cincinnati
  4. Antonio Panza; University of Cincinnati
  5. Deepak Krishnan; University of Cincinnati
  6. Frank Rybicki ; University of Cincinnati
3D printed anatomic models and surgical guides in medical centers adds value; it represents an opportunity for radiologists. These patient-specific parts are created from individualized imaging data. The models and guides offer a clinically impactful tool that can be 3D printed by radiologists as opposed to from industry. These parts aid the surgical and interventional planning for complex cases. It is well suited to be based within radiology because models are primarily generated from medical imaging data. Radiologists by training and practice have the expertise to understand both the parameters of the imaging data used in the creation of the models and the normal and abnormal aspects of the anatomy displayed. Important aspects of a 3D printing service include quality assurance, electronic orders, image acquisition, and reporting. Collaboration between radiologists and their clinical/ surgical colleagues is important. 3D printing creates new opportunities to engage in medicine and add an important dimension to current practice.

Educational Goals / Teaching Points
Update existing knowledge to establish a radiology based 3D printing practice Review specialized segmentation steps necessary to generate accurate surface mesh anatomic representations Update existing knowledge in the workflow to create 3D models in the following domains described below: cardiac, musculoskeletal, genitourinary, and craniomaxillofacial models and their clinical value. Provide contemporary review of 3D printing in medical education

Key Anatomic/Physiologic Issues and Imaging Findings/Techniques
Achieving a successful and clinically useful 3D printed part requires conceptual understanding of image technique and acquisition by radiologists. High contrast cross-sectional studies are first acquired and stored into DICOM format. Subsequent post-processing via a specific 3D printing technology is then utilized to convert the DICOM images to a Standard Tessellation Language (STL) format. STL Format divides the geometry of a surface into a series of small triangles that can be read by the 3D printer and create a volumetric model. 3D printing has a role in both open and minimally invasive surgeries in multiple domains, including cardiothoracic, craniomaxillofacial, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary surgeries. 3D has been shown to optimize pre-operative and intraoperative planning, enabling surgeons to better visualize complex anatomy not always apparent on conventional imaging, appropriately size and select prostheses, decrease intraoperative times, and minimize perioperative risks. 3D printing also has an emerging role in medical education. Integrating 3D printing into surgical and radiological residency training can enhance the procedural and image interpretation skills of trainees and provide valuable exposure to complex anatomy while minimizing risks to patients.

Medical 3D printing is well-suited for a radiology practice. The clinical utility of a radiology-based 3D printing lab is complimentary to traditional image post-processing. This update provides contemporary data and examples for anatomic models and surgical guides with specific benefits in patient care.